Diaporthe cynaroidis Marinc., M.J. Wingf. & Crous, in Marincowitz, Crous, Groenewald & Wingfield, CBS Diversity Ser. (Utrecht) 7: 39 (2008)
Index Fungorum number: IF506209; Facesofungi number: FoF 07201
Holotype: SOUTH AFRICA, Western Cape Province, Betty’s Bay, on leaf litter of Protea cynaroides, 26 June 2000, S. Marincowitz, S.L. 522 (PREM 56862), ex-type living culture CBS 122676 = CPC13180.
Saprobic on dead stem of Eupatorium cannabinum L. Sexual morph: Clypeus appears as black, wide patches. Ascomata 280–300 μm high, 180–200 μm wide (x̄ = 290 × 190 μm, n = 10), solitary or rarely aggregated, erumpent, globose to subglobose, black, coriaceous, ostiolate, papillate. Papilla 135–138 μm high, 110–140 μm wide, (x̄ = 136 × 115 μm, n = 10), internally covered by hyaline periphyses. Peridium 8–13 μm (x̄ = 10 μm, n = 10), comprising thick-walled, brown, compressed cells of textura angularis. Paraphyses a cellular mass of tissues. Asci 45–60 × 11–14 μm (x̄ = 51 × 13.5 μm, n = 20), 8-spored, unitunicate, clavate to fusiform, sessile, apex rounded, with a characteristic, bilobed, J-, apical ring. Ascospores 14–18.5 × 4–5 μm (x̄ = 16 × 4.2 μm, n = 20), 2-seriate, fusiform to elongate ellipsoid, 1-median septate, with each cell containing two guttules, hyaline, smooth-walled. Asexual morph: Conidiomata 125–140 μm high, 265–300 μm diam. at base (x̄ = 135 × 280 μm, n = 10), pycnidial, pyriform, initially immersed, erumpent at maturity, globose to pyriform, black, coriaceous, elongated neck, often with yellowish white, conidial cirrus extruding from ostiole. Pycnidial walls 34–36 μm diam. (x̄ = 35 μm, n = 10), parenchymatous, consisting of 4–7 layers of pale brown, thick-walled cells of textura angularis. Conidiophores 4–6 × 4.5–8 μm (x̄ = 4.6 × 6.6 μm, n = 20), ampulliform, straight to sinuous, unbranched, hyaline, smooth. Conidiogenous cells 8–14 × 1.5–3 μm (x̄ = 11.2 × 2.2 μm, n = 20), phialidic, terminal, cylindrical, slightly tapering towards the apex. Aparaphysate. Alpha conidia 5.8–7.5 × 2.5–3.5 μm (x̄ = 6.4 × 2.8 μm, n = 10), aseptate, hyaline, smooth, ovate to ellipsoidal, base subtruncate, often bi-guttulate. Beta conidia not seen.
Culture characteristics: Colonies growing on PDA attaining 2 cm diam. within a week when incubated at 18 °C, circular, entire, flat, white, tightly attached to the media, aerial mycelia less or sparse, forming few, erumpent, globose, black, viscous droplets after a week.
Material examined: ITALY, Province of Forlì-Cesena, Rio dell’Eremo, Cesena, dead aerial stem of Eupatorium cannabinum L. (Asteraceae), 16 December 2014, E. Camporesi, IT 1909 (MFLU 14–0847), living culture MFLUCC 14–0847.
Known host and distribution: Protea cynaroides, Vitis sp. (Italy, South Africa) (Farr and Rossman 2020).
GenBank Numbers: ITS: MN764319, LSU: MN764357.
Note: Marincowitz et al. (2008) introduced Diaporthe cynaroidis from leaf litter of Protea cynaroides (Proteaceae). This species was isolated from South Africa and only asexual morph was reported from its type collection. We illustrate the both sexual and asexual morph of D. cynaroidis from our collection obtained from Italy and this is the first illustration of sexual morph. It is also the first record of D. cynaroidis in Italy.