History

Italian microfungi

             Fungi are an amazing, essential group of organisms, which are very useful and understudied (Hyde et al. 2018). They are primary decomposers in ecosystems and ecologically, morphologically, and phylogenetically highly diverse eukaryotic organisms (Hyde et al. 2018, Tennakoon et al. 2020). Fungal lifestyles vary as biotrophic, endophytic, epiphytic, fungicolous, hemibiotrophic, or saprobic (Sun et al. 2019, Tennakoon et al. 2020). With such a diverse group of fungi, periodic outlines for phylum Ascomycota, have been issued since 1982 with notes in the journal Systema Ascomycetum. Lumbsch & Huhndorf (2010) accepted three subphyla viz. Pezizomycotina, Saccharomycotina, and Taphrinomycotina in Ascomycota and Wijayawardene et al. (2018, 2020) provided an updated outline of Ascomycota. Traditionally, morphology-based observations with descriptions and line drawings were used as major tools for fungal identification (Hyde et al. 2011, Tekpinar & Kalmer 2019, Tennakoon et al. 2020). Presently, studies are mainly based on morphological observations and multi-gene phylogenetic analysis for better resolutions (Rossman & Palm-Hernández 2008, Wanasinghe et al. 2018, Tennakoon et al. 2020).

In italianmicrofungi.org, we deal with Italian microfungi which were identified and published with continuous updates from novel studies that are currently processed. Italy lies in the temperate region. Over the last 8 years, our group has identified a number of novel fungal families, genera, and taxa from Italian microfungi collected by Erio Camporesi with descriptions, illustrations, and multi-gene analysis. This has resulted in numerous publications with new taxa and new host records. The host collection ranges from shrubs to trees and includes more than 300 species. In italianmicrofungi.org, we use morphological and molecular approaches to confirm the identification of the microfungi. Dothideomycetes and Sordariomycetes are the major classes of Ascomycetes we have mainly collected in this study. We also provide notes on genera and species of Italian microfungi. In the pursuit of discovering more fungi from Italy, this study is extending to investigate the taxonomy and phylogeny of fungal taxa. Comprehensive descriptions, micro-morphological illustrations, and justifications of all novelties are provided for each taxon.

 

Please see the CEFR publications relate to Italian Ascomycota here.

                      Figure 01: Regions in Italy

Fungal specimens associated with various hosts in terrestrial habitats were identified in different provinces in Italy, mainly in the provinces of Forlì-Cesena FC and Arezzo AR (in the region of Tuscany). Fungal hosts are from 277 genera in 35 orders (Host/substrate). Less collection are from the provinces of Emilia-Romagna, Ravenna RA, Bologna BO, Firenze FI (Tuscany), Pesaro-Urbino PU (Marche), and Trento TN (Trentino). Here, we provide an up-to-date record of Italian microfungi with accounts on different hosts and substrates. The host specificity and the life modes of Italian microfungi are evaluated.

 

References:

Hyde KD, Abd-Elsalam K, Cai L 2011 – Morphology: still essential in a molecular world. Mycotaxon 114, 439–451.

Hyde KD, Norphanphoun C, Chen J, Dissanayake AJ et al. 2018 – Thailand’s amazing diversity: up to 96% of fungi in northern Thailand may be novel. Fungal diversity 93, 215–239.

Lumbsch HT, Huhndorf SM 2010 – Myconet Volume 14. Part One. Outline of Ascomycota—2009. Part Two. Notes on Ascomycete Systematics. Nos. 4751–5113. Fieldiana Life and Earth Sciences 2010, 1–64.

Rossman AY, Palm-Hernández ME 2008 – Systematics of plant pathogenic fungi: why it matters. Plant Disease 92, 1376–1386.

Sun JZ, Liu XZ, McKenzie EH, Jeewon R et al. 2019 – Fungicolous fungi: terminology, diversity, distribution, evolution, and species checklist. Fungal Diversity pp.1–94.

Tekpinar AD, Kalmer A 2019 – Utility of various molecular markers in fungal identification and phylogeny. Nova Hedwigia 109, 187–224.

Tennakoon DS, Kuo CH, Hyde KD 2020 – Multi-locus phylogeny reveals Phaeodothis mori sp. nov. (Didymosphaeriaceae, Pleosporales) from dead leaves of Morus australis. Phytotaxa 428, 241–254.

Wanasinghe DN, Phukhamsakda C, Hyde KD, Jeewon R, 2018 – Fungal diversity notes 709–839: taxonomic and phylogenetic contributions to fungal taxa with an emphasis on fungi on Rosaceae. Fungal diversity 89, 1–236.

Wijayawardene NN, Hyde KD, Al-Ani LKT, Tedersoo L et al. 2020 – Outline of Fungi and fungus-like taxa. Mycosphere 11, 1060–1456.

Wijayawardene NN, Hyde KD, Lumbsch HT 2018 – Outline of Ascomycota: 2017. Fungal Diversity 88, 167–263.

About Italian Microfungi

The webpage Italianmicrofungi.org provides an up-to-date classification and account of Italian Microfungi.

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