Pleosporales » Didymellaceae » Epicoccum

Epicoccum nigrum

Epicoccum nigrum Link, Mag. Gesell. naturf. Freunde, Berlin 7: 32 (1816) [1815]

Index Fungorum number: IF 226758; Facesofungi number: FoF 02685

       Saprotrophic on dead and aerial branches of Vitis vinifera. Sexual morph: Not observed. Asexual morph: Conidiomata 250–700 μm (x̄ = 500 μm, n = 10), pycnidial, mainly solitary, globose to irregularly shaped. Pycnidial wall pseudoparenchymatous, composed of 5–9 layers, outer wall olivaceous brown. Conidiogenous cells 4–5 × 3–4 μm (x̄ = 2×3 μm, n = 20), phialidic, hyaline, smooth, globose to flask-shaped. Conidia 3–6 × 1–3 μm (x̄ = 4 × 2 μm, n = 84), hyaline, unicellular, ovoid, ellipsoidal to oblong, or sub-cylindrical. Chlamydospores 7–21 × 6–16 μm (x̄ = 12 × 10 μm, n = 20), multicellular, globose or irregularly shaped, dictyosporous, solitary or in chains, smooth, verrucose, pale brown to dark brown.

           Culture characteristics: Colonies on PDA reaching 65–75 mm in 7 days at 25 °C entire margin, immersed mycelium completely covered by a mycelial mat which is densely floccose, bright yellow, reverse with orange center, becoming yellow towards the margin.

Material examined: ITALY, Province of Forlì-Cesena, near Pieve di Rivoschio, on dead and aerial branch of Vitis vinifera (Vitaceae), 2 February 2015, Erio Camporesi IT 2363-3a, IT 2363-3b, (MFLU 15-1082); culture, MFLUCC 17-1214 and 17-1215; ITALY, Province of Forlì-Cesena, Fiumana - Predappio, on dead and aerial branch of Vitis vinifera (Vitaceae), 13 February 2016, Erio Camporesi IT 2831-L, (MFLU 16-0879); culture, KUMCC 17-0092.

Notes: Epicoccum nigrum is a common saprotroph that can be found on many hosts (Aveskamp et al. 2010). This species has been recorded to be associated with Vitis sp. as an endophyte as well as a saprotroph in Spain and Switzerland (Gonzales & Tello 2011, Garcia Benavides et al. 2013, Casieri et al. 2009). There are no records of E. nigrum associated with Vitis sp. in China or Italy in the SMML database.