Stagonospora forlicesenensis Phukhams., Camporesi & K.D. Hyde, in Hyde et al., Fungal Diversity 80: 77 (2016)
Index Fungorum number: IF 552238; Facesofungi number: FoF 02384
Etymology: In reference to the location where the fungus was collected.
Holotype: MFLU 16-1337.
Saprobic on dead branches of Phragmites australis (Cav.) Trin. ex Steud. Sexual morph: Undetermined. Asexual morph: Conidiomata 70–210 μm high × 70–160 μm diam. (x̄ = 141 × 117 μm, n = 10), pycnidial, solitary, uniloculate, scattered, immersed in the host, dark brown to black, globose, containing basal mycelium, ostiole central. Ostiole 22–72 μm high × 27–62 μm diam. (x̄ = 53 × 46 μm, n = 5), papillate, dark brown. Setae 48 × 3 μm, on the side of the pycnidial walls, acicular, curved, constricted at the septate, light brown to brown. Pycnidial wall 8–28 μm (–31 μm at apex), composed of 4–5 layers of brown-walled cells of textura angularis, two hyaline inner layers, lining bearing conidiogenous cells. Conidiophores reduced to conidiogenous cells with one supporting cell. Conidiogenous cells 4–10 × 2–6 μm, (x̄ = 7 × 4 μm, n = 30), holoblastic, determinate, discrete, ampulliform to clavate, hyaline, smooth, formed from the inner cells of the pycnidial wall. Conidia 25– 34 × 6–11 μm (x̄ = 30 × 8 μm, n = 50), broad fusiform to oblong, obtuse at both ends, thick-walled, with minute and large guttules in each cell, 3 transverse eusepta, rarely 2-septate, sometimes slightly constricted at the septa, hyaline; apical appendage, infundibuliform to campanulate- like, gelatinous, 7–8 μm wide.
Culture characteristics: Colonies on PDA, reaching 90 mm diam. after 14 days at 16 °C, colonies covering surface, sparse, cream, with abundant aerial mycelium, margins lobate; reverse white at the edges, cream at the center, radiating, circular, flattened, margin rough, not pigmented.
Material examined: ITALY, Province of Forlı`-Cesena, Pian di Spino—Meldola, on dead and stem of Phragmites australis (Poaceae), 22 December 2014, E. Camporesi, IT 2306 (MFLU 16-1337, holotype), isotype in HKAS 94613, ex-type living culture, MFLUCC 15-0054, KUMCC 16-0028.
Notes: Based on a morphological comparison, Stagonospora forlicesenensis is similar to Stagonospora (Neottiosporina) paspali G.F. Atk. B. Sutton & Alcorn (CBS 331.37), a species introduced from Paspalum leave Michaux (Poaceae). In study of Hyde et al. (2016), the sequence data also reveals a close phylogenetic affinity of Stagonospora forlicesenensis to Stagonospora (Neottiosporina) paspali. They compared the morphology with Neottiosporina. Sutton (1980) illustrated seven species of Neottiosporina. Neottiosporina australiensis B. Sutton & Alcorn and N. clavata B. Sutton are also reported from Phragmites australis (Poaceae) (Sutton and Alcorn 1974, Sutton 1980). They are phenotypically similar in having thin pycnidial walls, central ostioles, and holoblastic, determinate, 3-septate, hyaline conidia with infundibuliform apical appendage (Sutton and Alcorn 1974, Sutton 1980). Stagonospora forlicesenensis differs from N. australiensis and N. clavata in having immersed and smaller conidiomata, with brown setae on the pycnidial walls, and conidia which are obtuse at both ends. Therefore, Tanaka et al. (2015) suggested these species should be treated under Stagonospora based on morphology and phylogenetic analysis. However, sequence data for the type species are not available and therefore the position remains unconfirmed. (Hyde et al. 2016).